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*** The Publishers avail themselves of permission to print the following letter from a gentleman whose authority is as unquestionable in Historical Literature as in the Educa¬ tional World.

81 Linden Gardens, London, W., August yth, 1887.

My Dear Sir, When about thirteen years ago you in¬ formed me that you were going to publish a series of works on Commerce , its history and principles , I expressed to you my hearty good wishes for success in an undertaking for which I considered you pre-eminently qualified. The sentiments thus expressed allow me 7iow to repeat. Since then , great changes have taken place changes brought about in a great measure , I believe , by your own publications. The establishment of tech¬ nical and industrial schools and colleges , which have recently been founded in all our great industrial centres, require now more than ever such guides as your books furnish. I therefore rejoice to learn that you are about to publish a new , Unproved, and enlarged edition of your great work. Teachers , no less than young men intended for commercial or industrial life, cannot but be very materially helped in their pursuits by the use of your books ; and I sincerely trust that England may maintain that position in commerce and industry which seemed at one time to be threatened by our 7ieglect of such scie7itific study.

With heartiest wishes for the success of this fresh issue of your works,

I reinaui, yours very sUicerely,

L. Schmitz, LL.D., F.R.S.E.,

Late Rector of the Royal High School of Edinburgh, and Examiner in Classics in the University of London.

To Dr. John Yeats.

Just Published, Four Volumes, crown 8vo, cloth, price 24s., or each Volume separately, price 6s.

Manuals of Commerce,





JOHN YEATS, LL.D., F.G.S., F.S.S., &c.

Vol. I. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE RAW MATE¬ RIALS OF COMMERCE. Illustrated by Synoptical Tables and a Folio Chart ; a Copious last of Commercial Products and their Synonyms in the Principal European and Oriental Languages ; Glossary, Index, and large Map.

Vol. II. THE TECHNICAL HISTORY OF COMMERCE; or, the Progress of the Useful Arts. With Industrial Map and Tables of Alloys.

Vol. III. THE GROWTH AND VICISSITUDES OF COM¬ MERCE. With Statistical Supplements, Maps and Chart of Produce.

Vol. IV. RECENT AND EXISTING COMMERCE. With Statistical Supplement, Maps showing Trade- Areas, and Tabulated List of Places important in Business or Trade.




On a few of the Difficulties that retard the progress of Higher Commercial Instruction , and prevent the study of Commerce as a Science in England adapted from a letter to the “Journal of the Society of Arts,” by Dr. Yeats. London. July I, 1 887.

I. What chiefly -prevents the wider study of Co77imerce in England f

II. Why is it pro-moted abroad as pa7't of public School-inst7-uction f

III. What can be learned of Co-mmerce out of a Counting-house ?

IV. Are Continental Trade-schools connected with the old Guilds or the

Govern-ment ?

V. Is there anything new or special in their preparatio7i for business ?

VI. Is Co7M7ierce 7'ightly considered a science f

VII. What does the science of Co77i77ierce co7nprise

VIII. Should it be systematically taught everywhere ?

IX. Might not Indtistrial Universities interfere with busuiess enterprise f

X. Are there any English Text-books for the study of Co7nmerce ?

Indifference is the greatest difficulty; and misappre¬ hension of our true position causes it. Many say : Why should commerce be generally or even widely studied , ivhen it concerns the mercantile part of the community only ?

The mercantile part is the larger and more important one, and the principles of exchange affect every member of the community. Agriculture will not suffice for a growing

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population like ours ; the best resource now is the deck of a merchantman, or a desk on ’Change.

Seven hundred individuals leave our country every day, literally to seek their fortunes ; and how are they pre¬ pared for the task ? Even after their departure, eleven hun¬ dred others, strangers, need providing for. Of the two great factors of wealth, materials and intelligence, the latter ojily can be multiplied and made common property ; happily it is the more valuable. On this head Mr. Robert Mallet said after the International Exhibition of 1862 : In the absence of the sovereign gifts of natural wealth, prosperity, comfort and power may, by seeking and employing artifi¬ cially-made channels of industry, be largely developed. Thus it was with the Dutch, once prayed for in English liturgies as the poor and distressed States of Holland,’ with a bleak and damp climate, and a sterile soil presenting nothing but a flooded bed of sand and silt, who achieved in the teeth of every disadvantage, the highest mercantile prosperity, a paramount maritime prowess, and became the founders of great and distant colonies.”

Insular Prejudice prompts many others to say : Be¬ cause our neighbours choose to go to school to learn business , need we do the same ? Why do they do it ?

In comparing ourselves with others, we must remember that a century ago, the introduction of steam-power gave to England a preponderating advantage. Our possession of beds of coal and of iron ore promised to secure that : but the rest of the world thought it desirable and possible to find in the more genial diffusion of mental power a countervailing agency to our increased material force. Con¬ tinental philanthropists and patriots urged that the mind of a nation is more valuable than its soil.” Statesmen welcomed the idea with enthusiasm. Humboldt and kin¬ dred spirits were appointed ministers of public instruction. Chosen bands, nay battalions, of teachers were enrolled,

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and disciplined to do the state the noblest service. It was never supposed that the general ability and the good will of an operative could be multiplied or intensified like the leverage and the steam-power of an engine, the contrary was felt ; and a science of education arose, as a result of the study of the human being to be educated, no less than of the departments of human knowledge, yet, out of that study came many divisions and subdivisions of instruction both in universities and in polytechnic institutions.

But what” it is continued, can be learned of commerce i?i schools , or anywhere out of a counting-house ?

The reply is clear. A counting-house is a place in which commercial knowledge must be used rather than sought. Abroad, a youth at school studies the sources of supply for the goods he must hereafter deal in. There he is made acquainted with the laws and conditions of soil and climate, and afterwards brought into contact with specimens of pro¬ duce in Trade-Museums, from different Trade-Areas ; these he is required to examine and describe methodically. He is habituated to scientific nomenclature, which is suggestive not merely of the natural relationship among things, but of their chemical composition and valuable properties. He learns the “Natural in contradistinction to the “National” Divisions of Commerce, the resources of countries, rather than the names of their Ruling Powers. He studies the progress of the Useful Arts everywhere ; the Growth and Vicissitudes of Commerce in all ages. From the outset, he is accustomed to a kind and degree of intellectual discipline that must beneficially affect him.

Inquiry is further made, Whether Continental Trade- schools are in any way connected with the old Guilds , or zuith the Government C Not necessarily with either! Influ¬ ential merchants and manufacturers, foreseeing the effects of the dissolution of the Guilds, and of the adoption of

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“free industry,” with its irresponsible action among capita¬ lists as well as its uncontrollable combinations among opera¬ tives, bethought them of higher culture as the best means of promoting a good understanding among all parties. “Let us establish,” said they, “by the side of the universities, Polytechnic Schools and Technological Institutes. Let us, by means of Art Galleries, Drawing-Schools, Apprentice¬ ship-Schools, Continuation-Schools, Trade-Schools, andTrade Museums, bring the means of living more into harmony with the great ends and aims of life. Let us train head, heart, and hand together. To the study of the Word let us add the Works of God.”

No opposition was raised, and there was virtually no attempt made to retain the monopoly of the ancient Guilds, or to resuscitate a single League ; yet the discipline that had marked them all, their love of excellence, and their alle¬ giance were reverently preserved.* It was felt that in most departments of industry, except agriculture, “there was periodically a want of some renovating and regulating power.”

Government aid was invoked only for inspection and approbation. Here and there Schools of Commerce were warmly encouraged by dispensations from military service in favour of exemplary students.!

Next, it has been asked, Whether there is any novelty or speciality in the Continental prepa?-atio7i for business ?

Nothing, known to me ! The canons of instruction in

* For details of the transition, see Zschokke’s Labour stands on Golden Feet, caps. xix. and xx. G. Philip & Son.

For practical measures, see Das Gewerbewesen im Ivonigreiche Bayern, diesseits des Rheins, Miinchen, 1859. Or, Ein gewerbliches Fragenbuch, by Dr. Karl Karmarsch, 1877.

See also Technical Training, by T. Twining, Twickenham.

Education, Scientific, and Technical, by Professor Robert Galloway. London : Trtibner & Co.

t Rothschild’s Taschenbuch fur Kaufleute , p. 4.

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Commerce, I incline to think, comprise something like the following, for ground- work :

It has been observed that certain modes of procedure in business recur from generation to generation. These are the unwritten laws the prescriptive usages of Trade, to be learned, and understood.

In all transactions, mercantile or otherwise, there is a safe course and an unsafe one, a right course and a wrong one. It is important to adopt the former and avoid the latter.

Good fortune or the reverse cannot be a matter of indif¬ ference ; but in business we must trust nothing to luck or chance.

For each legitimate calling there must be due prepara¬ tion, and for permanence, organisation ; to ensure excellence on the one hand, and to remedy the effects of illegitimate trading on the other.

Every calling in life relates to the mind or the body. Commerce is concerned chiefly with material necessities; and commercial men are rather men of action than theorists. All theories and speculations need practical tests. As the downward curve of a rocket or the fall of spray in a fountain, is caused by gravitation, so all flights of fancy or mere sur¬ mises, must be subdued by what Bacon calls the wisdom of business.”

Where that wisdom of business prevails, commercial pursuits are assuredly not soul-debasing, or injurious in any sense, to any body. There should be no conflict or con¬ tempt between merchants and men of learning : for in their highest development they approach each other, like the opposite sides of a pyramid, and culminate in the character of the Statesman, the Consul, or the President of a Chamber of Commerce.

I have very often been asked : Why is Commerce called a Science ?” Why do the French write les Sciences du Commerce ?

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Commerce is a compound word, from “commutatio mercium,” meaning, “the exchange of merchandise,” which must be all drawn from one of the three Kingdoms of Nature. It may be “raw produce,” as drugs, gems, mine¬ rals, wild-fowl, fish, &c., or, manufactured commodities. Exchange itself, is necessitated by the structure of the globe. Non omnis fert onmia tellusP It is a characteristic of humanity, and underlies civilisation : Man alone bal¬ ances, yet deepens our mutual dependence by the arts of exchange.”

Science has been defined : Knowledge of natural laws derived from a knowledge of facts. Theologically ex¬ pressed, science is simply Man’s knowledge of God’s ways ; which are unalterable, yet mercifully discernible. Thus while we may smile at the expression “Science of Com¬ merce,” it nevertheless begins and ends in a study of Nature, and no competent judge doubts the soundness of principles so based. Nor, can any sane man see our supremacy in manufacture and trade challenged in all markets, and our goods as well as our aspirants for mercan¬ tile employment at home, beaten by Dutchmen and Ger¬ mans, without admitting that there must be something of value in the kind of training that accomplishes such things.

What does the Science of Commerce comprise in its entirety ?

It comprises an acquaintance with Commercial History and Geography ; Social and Political Economy ; Mercantile Occupations; Goods, in all varieties; Currencies, Weights and Measures ; Bullion and Exchanges ; Transit and Transport ; Insurance and Securities of all sorts ; Consular Duties ; Chambers of Commerce, &c.

A good commercial man must be an adept in Corre¬ spondence in several languages, General Commercial Law, Accounts, Usages in different countries, International Obli¬ gations and Means of Communication.

( 7 ;

Why should Commerce be systematically taught everywhere ?

Because without Commerce industry must be intermittent ; crops would not be raised unless a market could be found for them ; our farms and our plantations might all be aban¬ doned. Again, of two spots equally favoured by Nature, if one be cultivated and the other not, which redounds most to the credit of human nature and to the glory of God ? What else than culture can lead to the full appreciation of the “Earth-Gifts” of Divine Providence, and qualify us to appropriate them everywhere ? How else is the field to become a fruitful garden, and the wilderness to blossom as the rose ?

In 1878, I ventured to say: “By higher commercial education I do not mean that which leads a youth to look merely for a higher rate of interest on capital, or of profit in business, but, that which trains him to appreciate fully the objects , advantages , and pleasures of a commercial calling. Such an education would fit him to compete with all comers ; to be prepared to keep faith with everybody ; to value justly whatever is valuable ; but not to expect uniformity of weight, measure, custom, or opinion throughout the world.”

The question has sometimes been asked, Might not the training of an industrial university be prejudicial to business-energy and enterprise ?

I answer, No ! it would promote both ! Most likely it would rouse the latent ambition of a youth ; it would go far to preserve that integrity of soul which scorns a mean action, which maintains credit intact all over the globe, which upholds international morality, law, and liberty. Further extended and more elevated culture in commercial colleges would promote greater energy and enterprise. It would, as nothing else could, make young men acquainted with the different regions of the globe ; it would show the prospects of trade, where industry is rising,

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where falling, and why. By educating young men together it would raise them, as it were, from the level of solitary anglers to that of systematic fishermen ; it would lead them from dreaming of baits and hooks only, to the study of supply and demand together with all the sciences of commerce.

In manufacture we have advanced from simple tools to combinations of them in machinery ; and so in commerce, we have passed from the scope of individual aptitudes to the range of co-operative intelligence.


Chepstow, June, 1887.

P.S. In reply to query No. X., I shall be especially gratified if any of my works prove useful to the students who avail themselves of the Com¬ mercial Examinations of our Society, and thus promote the aims of our late President, the illustrious Prince Consort, as well as those of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, his successor, and the founder of the Imperial Institute.





. -

's vi


Explanation of Figures on Map.

1 Cereals

(Wheat, Barley, Oats, Rye)

2 Cereals

(Rice, Maize )

3 Coffee, &c.

4 Cotton

5 Sugar , &c.

6 Vine, Wine, &c.

7 Spice and Tropical Fruit

8 Fibres

g Dye Stuffs and Woods

10 Forests and Products

11 Animals and Products

12 Minerals

13 Dairy Produce

14 Silk, &c.

15 Fruits, &c.

16 Drugs, &c.


STecfjnical, Industrial, and ®rade Education*




Raw Materials of Commerce.



TKUtb an industrial /Ifcap printed tn Colours.






Ubfnrti ©Xrition, EtctriseU anti mucli ©nlarscti.









of Facit,





ftbts Volume




Man can only act upon nature, and appropriate her forces to his use, by comprehending her laws, and knowing those forces in relative value and measure. Bacon has said that, in human societies, knowledge is power, both must rise or sink together. Knowledge and thought are at once the delight and prerogative of man ; and they are also a part of the wealth of nations, and often afford to them an abundant indemnification for the more sparing bestowal of natural riches. Those states which remain behind in general industrial activity, in the selection and preparation of natural substances, in the application of mechanics and chemistry, and where a due appreciation of such fails to pervade all classes, must see their prosperity diminish, and that the more rapidly, as neighbouring states are meanwhile advancing both in science and in the industrial arts, with, as it were, renewed and youthful vigour. Cosmos.


- H -

This Natural History of the Raw Materials of Com¬ merce treats of each substance wherever it originates, above ground or beneath the surface ; shows what is done with it to make it useful ; and indicates where it is bought, sold, or largely consumed. The simplest divisions of the subject have been adopted, those of the Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal Kingdoms. All products are classified, and scientific terms are attached for wider reference.

Within so small a compass the choice of raw materials is inevitably restricted to the most useful, the most attractive, or those the treatment of which promises to be suggestive ; but the Tables in the Appendix will be found to supplement the text, and perhaps be sufficient for educational purposes. The Manual is designed for youths who are preparing for business at home, or for emigrants and industrial pioneers.

To meet the requirements of the first, the United Kingdom is examined geologically and geographically, as a home-study. The advantages and disadvantages of our insular position, our variable climate, varieties of soil, of level, of navigable stream and indented coast, with abounding fisheries, are dwelt upon, briefly



but plainly. Of Greater Britain and the rest of the world, as much is added as can be comprised within a few chapters. The migrations of plants and animals are not wholly overlooked, in connection with colonial enterprise and the shifting of trade-centres. It will be good training for a student to search out for him¬ self why madder, saffron, and woad, once common in Germany, are now seldom seen there ; why the sugar¬ cane has gone from southern Spain and Italy, and why the olive or even the vine is less extensively cultivated in Italy and France than formerly. He may ask too why wool, hides and meat, come so largely from the cattle-ranches and sheep-runs of the colonies, instead of from our own pastures ; and he may be astonished to hear that very few years ago, Australia had no other animals scarcely than u hogs and dogs/' and little or no agricultural or garden produce, while to-day it is rich in horned cattle, horses, sheep, goats, geese, rabbits and fowls. It has fish of many kinds ; and grows potatoes, tobacco, wheat, maize, vegetables, and the finest fruits. There too the honey-bee swarms, and the silk-worm thrives.

The knowledge of raw materials is too much confined to specialists to brokers and middlemen. Nowhere perhaps is the study more neglected than in England, and to this cause may be ascribed the complaints of a want of new industries.” Should not this rather be called want of new enterprise ? I will not dilate on the topic, but to encourage the young, append here statements made by me elsewhere long ago. They may give some clue to the real uses of my little book, and lead to readier apprehension of the aims embodied in it.



It is curious that the materials entering into com¬ merce so extensively now, were almost unknown to the wealthy Greeks and Romans. Beer, butter, coffee, cotton, fish-oils, potatoes, spirits, sugar, tea, and tobacco, are all modern. Of those which constitute the staples of our activity, the majority have been introduced into the market within comparatively few years, and many of them seem to have become known and appreciated from purely accidental circum¬ stances. For instance, in 1842, an English surgeon, Dr. Montgomery, while walking in the outskirts of Singapore, noticed that the handle of a woodcutter’s axe was something peculiar. He examined it, learned where the material was procurable, and soon sent over to England gutta-percha , without which we could not have laid our submarine electric cables.

About the same time, a chemist in Calcutta received from the interior of India some wide-mouthed vessels enveloped in a fibrous substance which attracted his attention and that of a rope-maker. It was jute, since largely grown in Bengal, and the manufacture of which has now become the staple industry of Dundee and other towns of the North;

It was in cutting the channel for a watermill in California, in 1848, that a quick eye detected in a quartzose rock grains of gold, the beginning of a dis¬ covery that afterwards revolutionised labour and the markets.

In 1850, an engineer in the same country was struck, while at church, with the very beautiful red colour used in the decorations of the interior. He inquired whence it came, and was told that it was an earthy powder brought by the Indians of the moun-



tains to their padre , a missionary. He investigated the source, and found cinnabar the bisulphide of mercury. The working of the mines of New Almaden was the consequence, and soon after, a fall in the price of quicksilver in Europe and America.

During the opening out of a Pennsylvanian salt¬ spring in 1859, the diggers struck a deposit of petro¬ leum , which afterwards gave a name to the locality, Oil Creek, and an important article of commerce to the world.

In i860, a shepherd in the employ of Mr. Hughes, of Wallaroo, South Australia, noticed that a wombat , an animal about the size of a badger, had while enlarging its den thrown up to the surface of the ground small pieces of greenish stone. These he collected, and carried to his master, who recognised in them an ore of copper. The place was examined, a fine vein of that metal laid bare, and soon the mines of Wallaroo were added to the celebrated ones of Kapunda, found in 1844, and of Burra Burra, found in 1845.

More recently still, at the beginning of 1867, a farmer of Pniel, in the republic of the Transvaal, South Africa, passing a neighbour’s door, noticed a stone in the hand of a child, and asked the mother if she would sell it. Sell a pebble ! said she, No ; but you are welcome to have it, if you care to take it ! The farmer carried it to Capetown, and showed it to Dr. Anderson, who declared it to be a diamond. It was immediately sent to the Paris Exhibition, and was there valued at 12,500 francs, about ^500- A tract of territory, hundreds of miles square, was quickly explored, more precious stones were extracted, and the land thereby raised in value enormously.



Sir Titus Salt, about 1836, observed the first sample of alpaca wool in a corner of one of the warehouses belonging to the Liverpool Dock Company, where it had been lying neglected for a long time, as of no marketable value.

In a lecture delivered at the City of London College so lately as 1861, Mr. P. L. Simmonds said: “It was not till the year 1800 that any considerable quantity of cotton was received from the United States. Mr. Samuel Maverick of Pendleton, South Carolina, who assisted in packing the first bag of uncleaned cotton ever sent from America to Liverpool, is still living ! The consignee of this lone bag in¬ formed the shippers, Messrs. Wadsworth and Turpin of Charlestown, that 1 he could not sell it/ and advised them to send no more.’ He little foresaw what Eli Whatney, Watt, and Arkwright would do with it ultimately ! With one more instance I close.

To protect the hull of his vessel from the rough walls of a quay in a Brazilian port, the captain had caused a sort of round fender to be made of weeds that grew on the river banks. The same fender was used for a similar purpose on his arrival in the docks of the Mersey, and at length left on the shore. A brushmaker looked at it and begged it, worked it up, and soon wanted more of it ; it was the piassaba for coarse stable and street-sweeping brooms.

Now, how far the world has been benefited by the work done through the agency of these really com¬ petent observers, and to what extent they or the bystanders became ultimately enriched, need not here be inquired. Of far greater significance to us is the plain recognition of a fact too often overlooked, that



light is not vision ; that the eye sees only what it brings the power to see.”

On the other hand, we are sure from all testimony and experience, that u knowledge is power.”* And we may feel safe in supposing that every one of the skilled men concerned in these discoveries was an educated man, trained beforehand in some if not several of the following sciences of observation :

Geology. Treating of Modes of Occurrence of Metallic Ores, Mineral, Fuel, and Building Materials ; Agricultural Soils.

Mineralogy. Constituents of Mineral Substances, Metals, Earths, &c.

Geography. Distribution of Animals and Vegetables ; Climate, as Determining the Introduction of Useful Plants and Animals.

Economic Botany. Food and Textile Products; Timber and Fuel; Oils, Gums, and Resins.

Economic Zoology. Food and Textile Products ; Furs and Leather; Bone and Ivory; Oils.

These form part of The Sciences of Commerce,” and as such, are the subjects dealt with in this book. J. Y.


* Man can only act upon nature, and appropriate her forces to his use, by comprehending her laws, and knowing those forces in relative value and measure. Bacon has said that, in human societies, knowledge is power , both must rise or sink together. Knowledge and thought are at once the delight and the prerogative of man ; and they are also a part of the wealth of nations, and often afford to them an abundant indemnification for the more sparing bestowal of natural riches. Those states which remain behind in general industrial activity, in the selection and preparation of natural substances, in the application of mechanics and chemistry, and where a due appreciation of such fails to pervade all classes, must see their prosperity diminish, and that the more rapidly, as neighbouring states are meanwhile advancing both in science and in the industrial arts, with, as it were, renewed and youthful vigour.” Cosmos.



Geography of the Home Country , the adjacent Continent , our Colonial Dependencies and Foreign Trade Connections.




Meaning of the term Raw Produce Necessity of a knowledge of Raw Materials Original discovery of Raw Materials, and effects of Discovery How a Knowledge of Raw Materials can be gained The Study of the Raw Materials of industry must begin at home Essential aid of Museums . . . i



Climate Soil Consequences arising therefrom United King¬ dom Great Britain Ireland British Empire defined Bota¬ nical or Floral Regions of Great Britain Chart ... 9



Effects of Geology on the Industrial History of the British Race . 20



Raw Produce Mineral, Animal, Vegetable . . . .48



Raw Produce Mineral, Animal, Vegetable . . . , .51






Deep Sea Fisheries River Fisheries Shell-fish Whale Fisheries 61



Analogues of Mining Industry Animal Products Vegetable

Products . . . . . . . . . C6



General Description Considered in Climatic Zones Possessions in I. Arctic and sub-arctic zones ; 2. Temperate zone ; 3. Sub-tropical zone; 4. Tropical zone Produce of these zones 71



Origin of interchange European Produce— Zones and sub-zones of European Produce Wine and Oil Countries Butter and Beer Countries Gradations in the Fauna and Flora . . 82



Physical Conditions— Raw Produce, Mineral, Animal, Vegetable

Analogues in Southern Hemisphere ..... 107



North America Central America South America Physical

Conditions Raw Produce, Animal, Vegetable, Mineral . 118



Limits of Human Power in Nature Effects on Amount and

Variety of Raw Produce . . . . . . ,136




The Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom.


I. Food Plants.

1. Farinaceous Plants.

A. Products of Graminaceous Plants. page

Cereals of temperate climates. Wheat, preparation of

flour, oats, barley, rye, ergot of rye . . . .146

B. Cereals of warm clifnates. Rice (rice paper), arrack,

maize, guinea com . . . . . . . 1 5 1

C. Products of Leguminous plants. Pea, horse-bean, French-

bean, lentils, ground-nut, chick-pea, carob-bean or St. John’s bread . 156

2. Starches and Starch producing plants. Arrowroot, Zamia

integrifolia, tous-les-mois, tapioca, sago . . . .158

3. Plants yielding Spices and Condiments. Cinnamon, bastard

cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, cloves, allspice, pepper, long pepper, Cayenne pepper or capsicum, chillies, ginger, cardamoms, vanilla . . . . . . . . . . .161

Aromatic fruits of umbelliferous plants, e.g., caraway, coriander, anise, star anise, mustard . . . . . . . 173

4. Plants yielding Sugar. Sugar-cane, beet, sugar-maple, and

date . . . . . . . . . . »iy3

5. Plants useful in the preparation op nutritious and stimulating

beverages. Tea, Paraguay tea or mate, coffee, cacao (cocoa, chocolate), grape (varieties of wine, brandy), hops (beer) . 1S0

6. Plants producing wholesome and nutritious fruits.

A. Fleshy fruits. Orange, bitter orange, citron, lemon, lime,

grape, raisins, currants, fig, prune, French plum, date, pomegranate, tamarind, banana, plantain, pine-apple . 200

B. Nuts. Hazel, walnut, hickory and pecan nuts, Brazil-nut,

chestnut, sweet and bitter almonds, cocoa-nut . .210

7. Miscellaneous food plants. Onion, soybean, truffles, morel,

mushroom and -carrageen or Irish moss . . . . .214

II.— Industrial and Medicinal Plants.

I. Textile plants. Flax, hemp, cotton plant, cotton shrub, cotton tree, jute, New Zealand flax, cocoa-nut fibre, Carludovica palmata, fibre of Manilla hemp, China grass . . . .217



2. Oleaginous plants. page

A. Fixed oils. Palm oil, cocoa-nut oil, castor oil, olive oil,

rape seed oil, linseed oil, sesame oil, &c. . . . 230

B. Essential oils. of lavender, thyme, peppermint, anise,

caraway, cinnamon, clove, cassia, pimento, otto of roses, 234

3. Tinctorial plants. Alkanet, sumach, arnotto, myrobolans, saf¬

flower, logwood, madder, indigo, turmeric, quercitron, yellow- berries, fustic, woad, peach wood, sapan, or bukkum wood, red sanders wood, orchil, tartar lichen . . 237

4. Plants furnishing valuable building and furniture woods.

Mahogany, ebony, East Indian ebony, boxwood, sandalwood, lignum vitae, bird’s-eye maple, American cedar, pencil cedar, lancewood, rosewood, black walnut, snakewood, satinwood, pine, fir, and larch ........ 247

5. Plants producing gums, resins , and balsams. Canada balsam,

caoutchouc, gutta-percha, tar, pitch, turpentine ; gums arabic, Senegal, and tragacanth, sandarach, gamboge, camphor, frankincense, benzoin, assafoetida ...... 253

6. Medicinal barks. Peruvian bark, cascarilla, cedron, quassia . 261

7. Tanning materials. Oak-bark, valonia, galls, divi-divi, cate¬

chu, betel-nut . 263

8. Narcotic plants. Poppy, tobacco, strychnos . . . 267

9. Aliscellaneous medicinal products. Aloes, liquorice, ipecac, rhu-

bard, jalap, chamomile, sarsaparilla, senna . . . .271

IO. Miscellaneous products of commerical value. Vegetable ivory, coquilla nut, marking nut, tonquin bean, orris root, crabs’ eyes, cork, balsa ; plants yielding soda and potash, tinder, teazel, rattans, bamboo, bulrushes, rushes, Dutch rush, papyrus, bast . 277


The Cotnmercial Products of the Animal Kingdom.


Object of a study of Natural History. Primary divisions of the

animal kingdom . 289



Products of the Class Mammalia.

Classification of Mammals. page

1. Furs. Properties of furs, preparation and dressing of skins of

animals, the process of felting hair and wool. Fur-bearing animals : Carnivora Lion, tiger, leopard, jaguar, Canadian puma, lynx, cat, wolf, red fox, arctic fox, silver fox, ermine, Russian sable, minx, American sable, polecat, pine marten, stone marten, tartar sable, woodshock or pekan, beech marten, skunk, American otter, sea otter, black bear, polar bear, brown bear, grisly bear, raccoon, badger, glutton, seals. Rodentia Beaver, musk-rat, coypu-rat or nutria, squirrels, chinchilla, hare, rabbit. Ruminantia. Bison, lamb . . . 294

2. Perfumes obtained from the musk-deer, civet cat, beaver, and

sperm whale (ambergris) . . . . . . *313

3. Stearin and oils. Spermaceti, whale, and seal oils, tallow . 316

4. Food products. Butter, cheese, lard, live stock, bacon, hams,

salted beef and pork, preservation of meat . . . >319

5. Wool, obtained from sheep ; mohair, from the Angora goat ;

cashmere, from the Thibet goat ; alpaca from the llama ; wool producing countries ....... 324

6. Leather. Nature of leather, preparation of raw hides, tanning

of skins, leather dressing, tawing leather (preparation of kid leather) ; preparation of russian and morocco leather. Various kinds of hides used. Horse, deer, calf, sheep. Statistics . 330

7. Hair and bristles. Nature of ; uses to which human hair, horse

hair, hair of elk, goat, iind camel are applied. Hog