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\ \ AJ^./^C:A^ L

OL-U^a-H f -^ •■ "^ ^ >^UL O-A

."^ .

PINNEY AND ARNOULT'8

FRENCH GRAMMAR,

A VBW MSTBOO^ COMBnnNO BOTH

THE OEAL AND THEORETIC;

PABTICITLAXLT CALOXTLATED TO BJOnXB TOB

SPEAKING OF FRENCH

EAST TO LEAKNEBS OF DIFFERENT AGES AND CAPACITIES.

PBONUNCIATION OF ALL THE WORDS,

A LEXICON.

NORMAN PINNEY and EMILE ARNOULT,

NEW YORK:

PUBLISHED BY MA80ir\B'RqTHE»&

1861.

THE WEVr YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY I

TILDTN FOUM

ON;- (

EsTEBED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1S60, by

MASON BEOTHEKS,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the Soatbem District of Nevf York.

JOHN 7. TROW, nUATES, WnMXOTTPER, AKD KtaECTBOTTPSII, 4Sk 48 * 60 OrMne Btrset, New York.

PREFACE.

Ths snperiority of the oral method for teaching the modern languages is now so generally understood, that little need be said in its favor. Years of experience have proved beyond all question that he who studies faithfully by this method, with a competent teacher, can, in no great length of time, not only translate the language which he studies, but can also write and speak it sufficiently for all necessary purposes, a result which can seldom, if ever, be attained by the old methods. On this point, therefore, we need not dwell. But there are other characteristics of the present work on which more should be said.

It is now about twenty years since Ollendorff first published his improTe- ment on Manesca^s System. During this time various works have appeared on this method, which possess their merits and their use. But it is no dispar- agement to these to say that experience calls for important improvements in them all. Some, prepared chiefly for oral purposes, havo had too much the character of mere phrase-books, lacking system and grammatical complete- ness. Others again have inclined to an opposite course, and have sacrificed much of oral ease and simplicity without attaining all that was to be desired in point of grammar.

It is to be borne in mind that the best grammar for the French learner is not the best grammar for the English, and that rules may bo, and very often are, given, which, though perfectly correct, are absolutely detrimental to the learner. A rule, for instance, on a mere common phrase which is best learned by example, is worse than useless, as are, also, rules on those parts of the language where the French does not differ from the English, so that the un- aided learner can not go wrong. Such rules, by presenting an appearance of difficulty where none exists, tend to confuse and perplex the learner, and to draw off his attention from things of real use. On the other hand, in those parts of the grammar where the languages differ, the rules and examples should be fulL Too much pains can not he taken to present and illustrate

4 PREFACE.

these with clearness. Now nn ordinary French Grammar, written for the French, is deficient in both these respects. Three-fourths perhaps of such a work are occupied with matters on which the English learner needs do instruction, while the remainder, where he needs all help, is passed over with a brevity, whicli, though suflScient for the French, is entirely Inadequate to his wants, and much, too, which Ls of vast importance to him is entirely omitted.

This is a subject which deserves to be well considered ; for, we are apt at first to suppose that a French Grammar, which has reputation among the French, and is useful in their schools, must be good also for ours. But a little reflection shows us that this is by no means so. What the English learner chiefly needs is an explanation of the differences between the French language and his own. These must be clearly and carefully laid before him, and the rest ho understands as a matter of course. Now these are precisely the points of which a foreign grammarian has no idea. They do not, and ought not to enter the mind of a Frenchman who is preparing a book for the schools of his own country. His sole object is to meet the wants of the French learner, and as these differ vastly from the wants of the English learner, his grammar of course contains much which the latter does not need, and omits no less that he does need.* Hence, too, it is not strange that oral methods, though designed particularly for English learners, should have more or less of this character ; that they should contain many mles which ought to be entirely omitted, while they pass over in silence equally much which is very necessary to the learner.

Here, then, is the first great advantage of the present work. Combiuing, as it does, the united care of experienced native teachers in both languages, it will be found, we think, to unite an accurate knowledge of the idioms and pronunciation of the French with a more perfect adaptation to the wants of thd English learner. The lessons are comparatively short, the oral exercises easy, and very gradually progressive ; all superfluous matter, which tends only to perplex the learner, has been carefully avoided, while the peculiar difficul- ties which the language presents to the English student have been still more carefully explained. As a grammatical treatise, the improvements made in the present work can not hero be specified in detail ; but it will be found, we believe, on trial, to contain not only much of the ordinary g^mmatical mat-

On this subject we qnote from the prcf^e of Dr. AmouU's Pronouncing Reader, In which ho says : ** AmericaD grammars are necessary to teach the theory of the hm- gaage, and notwithstanding some Inoocnracies (which ought to be mended in eabfiequent editions), wo certainly prefer them for teaching Americans to any French grammars, writ- ten In Paris solely for native learners, and reprinted in New York for the nse of American etndents. French grammarians do not know a word of English. Their books therefore can not contain the most necessary part, the corresponding idiomatic features of both lan- guages. They give but one side of the subject Hence it is that the worst American gram- mar, written for Americans, and containing the whole, Is fiir more uaefhl for teachers and •cholars in American schools, than the best one-sided book pabllshed in Parls^*^

PREFACE. 5

ter presented in an easier form, but many useful rules and much valuable in« struction on the use of the language, given in no previous book.

Another important advantage of the present work consists in its method of teaching the pronunciation. This, it will be seen by examining the pre* liminary lessons and exercises, is united with the matter taught in a peculiar way. After the simple vowel and the consonant sounds have been given, the words and phrases which form the oral exercises are selected and introduced in such a way that all the vowel-sounds, and such of the consonants as require practice, are called into use one at a time, and made familiar by repetition, until the whole are learned. Thus, without the sacrifice of any time, and with- out retarding in the least the learner's progress in the acquisition of words, phrases, and grammatical principles, he Is exercised in a systematic course of pronunciation in all its parts. It is not to be supposed that any marked pro- nunciation can at all supply the place of the oral teacher ; but after the simple sounds have been given by the living voice, the annotation of each new word at the bottom of the page throughout the course, with its division into syllables and its silent letters, must be convenient to the teacher, and of much value to the learner.

Another advantage of the present work is its capability of abridgment without any sacrifice of grammatical system. The French language is studied among us by learners dlifering widely in age, talents, and attainments. Some, too, as children, who begin it young, have ample time for its acquirement Others, as the students in our colleges and high-schools, can give but a brief period to the study. Now, no one book can be suited to all these various wants without the provision of longer and shorter courses. These accordingly are here provided in this way. At the end of each lesson, excepting a few of the first, are given a quantity of exercises termed optional^ intended only for fuller practice on words and rules previously introduced. At the end, too, after the grammatical course Is completed, is a series of lessons styled supple- mentary; while at the beginning, those called preliminary are designed merely to facilitate the pronunciation, and make the oral exercises more gradually progressive. By the omission, therefore, of any or all of these, at the discre- tion of the teacher, and according to the wants of the learner, the work may be abridged to the extent of one-half, or even more, without destroying its completeness as a grammar, or breaking the chain of its oral exercises.

The introduction of the optional exercises is attended, also, with this fur- ther advantage. It gives opportunity for the use of connected dialogues of some length, on the same subject, of which they will generally be foimd to conast. This serves not only to give more reality and interest to the dia- logue, but to call more into exercise that class of words whose chief use is to show the relation of sentences to each other, and which can not be so well employed in those disconnected questions and answers which are given merely to make exercises on certain words, or to illustrate the application of particular rules.

The last advantage of this work which we shall specify, is the dictionary of

6 PREFACE.

all the English words into FreDch, given at the end. By the aid of this, the learner who has forgotten the French for any English word previously given, can recall it without resorting to the key. Learners in classes who chance from any cause to have lost a few lessons, may by the aid of this avoid falling behind their companions. And, as the place of introduction of each word is marked in it, it may serve as a complete verbal index when the book is to be consulted on the use of any term or phrase.

NORMAN riNNEY : EMILE ARNOULT.

N. B. Teachers can omit at discretion all that precedes page 65 ; as that which follows contains the entire grammar, and presupposes a knowledge of nothing which precedes, except the table of pronunciation, page 8.

In the marked pronunciation at the bottom of the pages, some words will be found marked dififercntly from the general rule. These are not misprints, but anomalous cases, whore French usage differs from the general analogy of the language.

FEENTCH GEAMMAR

ALPHABET.

A, «, . .

. ah.

N,

n, . .

. . en.

B. b. . .

. .bay.

0.

0, .

. . 0.

0, c .

. say.

P,

P, . .

. .pay.

D, d, . .

. . day.

Q,

q, .

. . ktt.

B, e, . .

. a.

R,

r, . .

. .air.

F, f, . .

. .ef.

s,

s, .

. . ess.

6, B.

. jay(zhay).

T,

t, . .

. .tay.

H, h, . .

. .ash.

u,

u, .

. . u.

I. i, . .

. e.

V,

V, . .

. .vay.

J. J, . .

. .jee(zhee).

X,

X, .

. . eeks.

K, k, . .

. kah.

Y,

Ti

. . e-grek.

I^ 1. . .

. .el.

z.

z,

. . zed.

M, B, . .

. em.

ACCENTS, AND OTHER SIGNS.

Thertt are throe accents in French ; the aeuU (A), the ffrave (d), and the eireun\fie» (A).

Th« aeuU aeeent is never placed over any vowel but e; as, </A The « is then always aoonded long at the end of words.

The ffrate accent is sometimes placed over a, e, ti ; as, 2c2, pria, oik Over a and v it marks no change ; over e it marks a change of sound.

The drcumjleao acoerU is used over any vowel except y; as, ^ge, hiU^ ipUre^hUs, Jl&U. The vowel thus accented is long, with very few exceptions.

Tm csDiLLA is) is placed under c before a, o, u, to give it the sound of «.

Tun APOSTROPns C) marks the ellsiou of a final vowel before another vowel or silent h ; as, Vanimal^ for 2e animal ; rhomme^ for le homme.

Elision takes place in the following words : ce, de^ je, ki^ U, tne, fi«, qus^ det que.jtU' qtUy paree qu4^ lou que ; also in loreque, pui^ue, and quotque, before </, iU, eUe^ ellea^ en, cm, «n, fine ; In enire and preaque when compounded with other words, as entr" aider, prt9qu^ tie; in quelque before un and avire, as quelqiC un ; in H before t7, iU. Ecfin bo elided or not before tiaa, elU, Eot grande is always elided in grands mire, grand* tanU, grands chatnbre^ grand* ckoae, grand" eroix, grand* mewt, and flroqnently In gran^ peine, grand" peur, gran<C pUU, and grandP honte, when not immediately preceded by an article or pronominal adjective.

Oe, <fe, 20, suffer no elbion before ouiy onze, huit, and derivatives; aSf U oui,dshuitd oiue^ ce OTwUms chapUre.

DuEKssn (") is placed over e, i, u, to indicate that the foregoing vowel is to be Bounded separately; as, ambigui, laiqtie, J^saii.

Tns nrrtaa (•) is used to connect words or syllables ; as, aprSs-midi,

PBONTKCUnON.

SIMPLE VOWEL SOIDfDa

'fiit, soonded as

a in oA, represented b v |

A

a in arm.

^'!r.*°^ "

tffi in encore,

tt in ttf.

■G>'a

t in «66,

e! i.

a in faie.

E

Pi*.

V6,

ai in oir, « in ibAav,

rteo.

ttinttf.

r *'^* , r

eugh in eu^Ar,

,h!eu (before r).

t> in sir.

I

i in jfiqittj ee in ««/,

\14. in, luuial, "

aft in anchcr.

'l^o,

o'mnoi.

m o (before r%

aw in aiw,

iV^o,

oin no,

0

Ifi'r "

ouinyou.

20^oi,§

oo in mooif,

tra in watAj

^2Lon,,iia«al, "

on in wrong.

U-

u in 9tie«n, u in queen.

:d

.24 un,t nasal, "

uhng.

a,ea, a

OH, en, 4BH, tm, tun,

e, ve, etc. *

e, e, et, er, est, etc.

e, ai. Mi, eg, er, etc. *

e, £*, ex, er, aie, etc *

e, ai, ne, '

en, oeu, oei, *

eik, oeu, eue, eu, *

eu, oeu, '

», ««» y. *

«, »^, * in, im, ain, dn, ym, yen, *■

o, oi, '

o, au, eo, ao, *

6, au, eau, *

ou, aou, oil, '

ou, oue, *

oi, oy, voi, oie, ua, *

on, om, aon, '

u,eu,

ti, ii«, uie, *'

Vn, «i», f MH, '

Bevakk. F 18 generally sounded as t ; between two Towels it is soonded as i i, forming two syllables. A cipher over e niarisa that it is entirely mlent.

* ThU 8<mnd is dlstiDgnished from eu by being pronouncod like « in (A« before a con- ■oiiant, M tUe man.

JSatthe end of a word, at the end of a syllable after a alngle consonant, and in combioa-

0 0 0

tiona, Is often sUent; as, eaU, gelera, nemsU.

t E followed by a consonant In the same syllable, and i at the beginning or in the mid- dle of a word, hare commonly tbis sound.

t Ek and un hare no rery near representative eonnda in English, and leqaire the cqwdal instmction of the teacher.

S (H has the nature of a compoond sound made up of the 15 and 1. In several in- stances, also, the soands marked above with different figures may consist of the same do- ments, differing only In quantity and oombinationa.

PRONDirCIATIOSr.

SIMPLE SOUNDS ILI.USTRATED.

1

la.

ma.

bal.

sa.

rat.

place,

orgeat.

2

baa,

gras,

mat.

tas.

ftge.

ame.

b&te,

nageAt.

3

f"»

banc,

blanc,

en.

camp.

temps,

Jean,

tante.

4

je.

ce.

de,

le.

me.

que,

se.

ne.

5

est.

es, 6dit,

met.

net.

clocber,

papier.

chef,

bref.

6

bl6,

cl^.

d6,

g»i6.

j'ai.

Dey,

ranger,

chez.

^

mdre.

p^re,

cher,

ces,

des.

mer,

Agnez,

craie.

8

bleme,

meme,

b6te.

tete,

maitre.

chaine.

en quote,

d'etre.

9

bleu.

peut.

neof.

jeu.

boeuf,

oeuf.

ceil.

seul. Evrope

10

jeiine,

ceui,

creux,

VOBUX,

bcBufs,

oeufs.

eux.

queue.

11

pcnr,

ardeur,

rigeur,

nageur,

moeurs,

tucur,

terreur,

meurs.

12

d«,

lis.

lit,

prix.

oui.

gui.

y.

U.

13' dime,

gite,

lie.

prie,

Bcie,

vie,

cocyte,

amie.

U

Hn,

vin.

imba,

pain.

saint.

sein.

nymphe,

moyen.

15

col.

bol.

pot.

notre,

oignon,

poignet,

mode,

noce.

16

fort.

Tor,

mort,

tort,

maure.

aural,

George,

Sa^ne.

17

ddme,

mole.

ndtre,

faux.

reau,

duo,

vos.

gros.

18

bout,

fou.

coup,

aoAt,

oA,

tout,

TOUS,

cou.

19

Tofite,

boue,

foule.

loue.

roue.

coude.

ours.

Boute.

20

bois,

dots.

roi.

toit.

loyal,

quoi.

noicy

quadrupdde.

21

bon,

long,

rond,

oncle.

nom,

ombre,

taon.

ongle.

22

bu,

lu,

vu.

8ur,

tu.

sut.

eu,

j^eus.

23

bue,

lue.

Tue,

stir,

mOp,

mflre.

plue,

juge.

24

un.

brnn.

chacun,

humble,

parfum,

jeun,

d6funt.

Huns.

DIPHTHONGS.

ai as in maU.

lA

iC

diacre.

ie

It

moiti6.

id

it

lumidre.

lai

ct

biais.

of

<(

lot

eoi

IC

Tillageois.

ouai

II

ouais.

oin

11

soin.

ouin

II

baragouin

ooi

i(

Louis.

ue

<l

^cuelle.

io

1*

pioche.

ien as ien ** ian " ieu " ion " iou " oe " ouan" ua " one " ui " uin "

in rien. patience, yiande. Dieu. occasion, chiourme. moelle. louango. 6quateur. ouest. lui. join.

10 rRONUNCIATION.

CONSONANT SOUNDS.

Consonants, when not silent, arc pronoanced as in English, with the fol- lowing exceptions :

C, before a, o, u, has the sound of A;, as cap^ col, cuve; before e, t, that

of 8, as ccci ; p is only used before a, o, «, and has the sound of «, as fa, Icron^ ?*cft/.

D, F. At the end of a word, and preceding another word beginning with a Towcl or silent A, d has the sound of ty and / of t> ; as, grand ami, grand homme, neuf annees.

O, before e, »', y, has the sound of 8 in pleasure, as dge, gite, g^se; be- fore a, 0, u, and the liquids /, n, r, it has the hard sound, as gant, gond, aigu. When final, and followed by a word beginning with a Yowel, it has the sound of k, as rang eleve. It generally forms a liquid Round with n. (See liquid sounds, below.)

n is said to be aspirated in words which do not require or admit of any elision of a vowel preceding them, and not aspirated (or silent) in words which require such elision. Thus h is aspirated in le hommard, and not aspirated (or silent) in IfJiomme, It is hardly ever sounded in French.

J has the sound of 5 m pleasure; Qa,jalouXjjeu,joue.

L is sometimes liquid (see liquid sounds), otherwise it is sounded as in English.

Q is always followed by u. They are commonly sounded like k ; as, que, question. Sometimes qu is sounded as in English ; as, quadrupede,

R is pronounced stronger than in English, and is always sounded as r in rose,

S. A single s between two vowels, and s final before a word beginning with a vowel, has the sound ofz; as, rose, pas icu

T before ion., ial, iel, and before t in a few other cases, has the sound of s ; as, action, martial, partiel. In the final syllable tie, t has the sound of s, when preceded by a vowel, in all words except chdtie or a past parti- ciple ; as, demoeratie, thhcratie,

X alone, or after e at the beginning of a word, when followed by a vowel, has the sound of gz, as Xerces, examen ; in a few words it has the sound of s, as soixanie, six, dix, dix-sept, Bruxelles, X final is silent when preceded by a diphthong or compound vowel, in words pronounced alone or preceding a consonant or aspirated h ; as, paix, maux, choix, jaloux, aux livres, aux hiros, deux mille. Before c it is always sounded like A:, as in excite, etc. At the end of a few words, when preceding an- other word beginning with a vowel or h not aspirated, and in most compound numerals, x has the sound of z ; as, dtux enfanta, six ans, dix homines, dix-huit, dix-neuf, also in deuxieme, sixieme, dixieme, and their derivatives. In other cases it is sounded as in English.

PRONUNCIATION. H

W does not properly belong to the French alphabet. It ia used only in words adopted from foreign languages, and then takes, in some words, the sound which it has in those languages ; as, loAt^, whiskeyf whist, Wiuhington, Wellington, Walter Scott. The French generally sound it

LIQUID SOUNDS.

On is generally liquid in French, in which case it has the sound of m in onum ; as, mignon. In a few words gn is pronounced as in magnate,

L,Uj in the middle or at the end of a word, when preceded by t, have usually the sound of gli in teraglio, or Hi in brilliant. They are pro- nounced by manf JFxenchmen also with the sound of y in yoke.

TEfiMINATIONS IN ZH AND ^R

In English we pronounce the terminations le, re, like td, tir, as if the con- sonant were placed last. Care must be taken to aToid this pronunciation in French as very harsh and erroneous. Such syllables must be pronounced as follows :

fre as fru in frustrate.

ble as blu in blush.

bre

bru

brush.

cle

clu

clung.

ere

cm

crumb.

dre

dru

drum.

fie

flu

flung.

glo

glu

glum.

gre

gru

grum.

pie

plu

plum.

pre

pru.

tre

tru

trumi

As, InUe, candelabre, acre, camphre, tnonatre^ t/Udtre.

IiiPORTAKT Beuabk. S IS ucTcr sUent in French, when two consonants are to be found before it : at the end of words, the three letters form a plain, dis- tinct half-aueUble sound, as in all the above final syllables ; and, in the middle of words, the e is articulated mfuU sound yrith the last of the foregoing conso- nants, as in distinetxment, par/iment, paWiront, gouyemsment, etc.

PRELIMINARY LESSONS.

PRONOUNCING.

E. FOURTH BODim.

4. E sounded as it in tu; Fourth Sound.

J^'

I.

4

le,

the.

me,

me.

ce,

this or that

te,

thee.

que,

what.

86,

one's self.

de, .

of.

C.

£ sounded

as a in fate; Sixth Sound.

Cllorclef

. key.

c fte.

fairy.

bl6,

wheat.

thd,

tea.

d6,

thimble.

geai,

jay.

gu6,

ford.

j^ai,

I have.

ii6, n6e,

bora.

jesaiP,

I know.

5.

E sounded

use in ebb ; Fifth

Sound.

and

7.

^ sounded

as ai in air; Seventh Sound.

Bee,

beak.

T 0

baie,

bay.

bel,

handsome.

craie,

chalk.

chef,

chief.

vraic,

true.

net,

clean.

b^gue,

stutterer.

effet,

effect.

cdde.

yields.

jet,

throw.

cher,

dear.

dette,

debt.

fraisc.

strawberry.

quel,

what.

vaine,

vain.

godet,

small cup.

crdme.

cream.

poulet,

chicken.

g^le.

freezes.

parapet,

parapet.

zde,

zeaL

8.

£ sounded

as 0 in where ; Eighth Sound.

t 0

Bdche,

spade.

0

pfiche.

peach.

b^te,

flfiimi^l,

qu6te.

search.

bldme,

sallow.

tdte.

head.

f4te,

festival.

v6te.

clothes.

mdme.

same.

maitre,

master.

* When a flgnre or mark of eoand is placed orer a vowel f n the followins colamns, H la meant to apply luso to Uie words placed immediately under it in the same eoiomn, as 4 here appllea also to « in m«, te, and bo on.

PRELIMINARY LESSONS.

13

SENTENCES.

4 S 4 7

Ce d6 est de fer.

4 7

Ce h\6 est cner.

s r f 7

Ce lait est frais.

5 7 0 6 7 0

Cette crdme est fraiche.

so 7 0 C CO

Cette fndse est belle.

S t » * 0

Cette £&te est belle.

S 7 7 7

Cest Tni, c^est tr^yrai.

4 7 4 S 0 7 0

Je fais le m6me thSxne.

4 7 4 S

Que fait le chef?

47 4 7044 I

Qoe fait le fr^re de ce chef P

This thimble is of iron.

This wheat is dear.

This milk is cooL

This cream is cool.

This sirawberry is handsome.

This festiral is beautiful.

It is true, it is Terj true.

I do the same exercise.

What does the chief?

What does the brother of that chief?

A, FIKST SOUND.

1. A sounded Baa'mah; First Sound.

1 A,

has.

1 0

balle,

ball.

•»,

hast

calme,

calm.

b»l.

hflll

lady.

c«p.

cape.

face,

face.

chat.

cat.

cage,

cage.

plat,

dish.

femme,

ma,

my.

dalle,

flag-stone.

!«,

the.

salle,

hall.

fat,

fop.

malle,

trunk.

Anp,

cloth.

dard.

dart.

2. A sounded as a in arm; Second Sound.

•Ag^,

age.

t 0

pAte,

dough.

»me,.

souL

plAtre,

plaster.

Ute,

haste.

bas.

low.

Uche,

loose.

gnw.

fat

mile.

male.

tas.

pile.

pile.

. pale.

m&t.

mast

12. I sounded as t in

pique; Twelfth Sound.

Am?,

fiiend.

n

dit.

said.

a,

he.

file.

row, file.

are.

wax.

lime,

file.

bto.

brown.

mille.

thousand.

CO,

eye -lash.

pUe,

pUe.

ten.

qmtte,

free, discharged.

lit,

bed.

rime.

rhyme.

14

PRELIMINARy LESSONS.

IS II

pis, worse. souiis, mooae.

prix, price. si, if.

qui, who. bAti, built,

riz, rice. Biz, six.

13. t sounded ma ee in eel; Thirteenth Sound. (Also ie, y.)

Lie,

dregs.

dime.

Uthe.

flcie,

saw.

gifcet

home.

vie,

life.

ile,

island.

15.

0 sounded as in

not; Fifteenth Sound ; and

16.

0 sounded as ato in awe; Sixteenth Sound.

u

Botte,

boot.

14 0

encore.

again.

code.

code.

dore,

gilds.

folle.

crazy.

Georges,

George.

mode.

mode.

maure,

Moor.

uoce.

wedding.

corps.

body.

sotte,

foolish.

bord.

edge.

d6vot.

devout.

fort.

strong.

col,

neck.

nord,

north.

bol,

bowl.

tort,

wrong.

vol,

theft.

mort.

dead.

17.

0 sounded as o in no; Seventeenth Sound.

IT

C6tc,

coast.

IT 0

d6me,

dome.

gros,

big.

m61e.

mole.

no8,

we.

r6Ie,

roU.

V08,

you.

rose.

rose.

peau,

skin.

t6le.

sheet-iron.

r6t.

roast.

cause.

cause.

flot,

wave.

psaume,

psalm.

tdt,

soon.

sauce,

sauce.

beau,

handsome.

sauge,

sage.

eau.

water.

gcole.

jaa.

SENTENCES.

4 11

1

Le chat est 1^.

The cat is there.

4 1*

Le drap est

4 IS

;sec.

The cloth is dry.

Le plat est 4 sa

place.

The dish is m its pUce.

Le tas de sacs est lA.

CO rot so Cette daine est grasse.

4 0 10 4 V 0

Cette salle est belle.

The pile of bags is there. That doe is fat. That hall is beautiful.

PREUMINART LESSONS.

15

4 1 1 « I

Le cbat a le rat

4 S 1 1 10

Le chef a la malle.

110 14 <

La dame a le the.

» 0 1 oil 6

Cette femme a la clef.

« 1 6 17 i S

Ce chat est gros et gras.

i0t06 17 0 4

Cette b6te est grosse ct grasse.

Cl 704110

JTai la craie de la dame.

IfOftlB 0

«rai la pelle et la bdchc.

0 110 4 4 0

J^ai la cage de ce geai.

oil 04001

J^ai la bague de cette femmc.

39 1 4 1 « 1

11 a le dard et Tare.

IS 1 4 U 4 4 ft

II a le lit de ce chef.

U 1 1 U 1 10 0

11 a la scie et la corde.

4 1 4 17 0 u

Le chef a le pot et le bol.

1 1 0 I 1 17 0

La dame a la rose.

UllUO 41 1 0

Qui a la cire de la dame ?

U 0 1 1 U 0

Georges a la cire.

IS 1 4 17 17

Qui a le beau seau ?

li 0 1 4 17 4 17 17

Georges a le seau et le gros pot.

The cat has the rat.

The chief has the trunk.

The lady has the tea.

That woman has the key.

That cat is big and fat.

That animal is big and fat.

I have the chalk of the lady.

I have the shovel and the spade. '

I have the cage of that jay.

I have the jeweled ring of that woman.

He has the dart and the bow.

lie has the bed of that chief.

He has the saw and the cord.

The chief has the pot and the bowl.

The lady has the rose.

Who has the wax of the lady ?

George has the wax.

Who has the handsome bucket f

George has the bucket and the big pot.

U. TWENTY-SECOND SOUND.

22. 27 sounded as u in ^ue^n; Twenty-second Sound.

a Ba,

drunk.

SS 0

butte,

hiU.

but,

aim.

chut!

hush!

do.

of the.

plume,

feather.

la.

read.

tu,

thou.

no.

naked.

cu.

had.

80,

known.

sur,

on.

23.

U Eoanded as u

prolonged -, Tvrenty-third Soand.

Si

SS 0

E&t,

had.

biiche,

log.

m6r,

ripe.

flate,

flute.

sAr,

sure.

miire,

, mulberry.

bue,

drunk.

juge,

judge.

lue.

read.

tue,

kills.

sue.

known.

ruse,

craft.

16

PEELIHINABT LESSONS.

9.

. Eu sounded as v in im; Ninth

Sound, and

11

. Eu sounded as i in Hr ; Eleventh Sound.

Bleu,

blue.

9 0

jeune,

young.

feu,

fire.

peuple,

people.

jeu,

game.

beurre,

butter.

seul,

alooe.

peur,

fear.

boeuf,

beef.

meurs,

die.

oeuf,

egg.

mceurs, 1 11

mannerst

neuf,

nine.

labeur,

labor.

veuf.

widower.

ardeur,

ardor.

peux,

can.